Spotlight - Wampum Treaties

One Dish One Spoon

One Dish One Spoon Wampum was designed to represent a peaceful coexistence of two or more nations. The distinct purple circle, which is the dish, represents shared hunting territory and the connection to the land. The white beads at the center symbolize the spoon which are the animals that were hunted for food. This shows that both nations use and need to collaboratively maintain their food source so it can be used for generations. 

Two Row Wampum Treaty

The Two Row Wampum treaty represents two canoes traveling parallel next to one another in a river. This treaty represents two nations living next to one another each on its own path but never to cross in front of one another. Each nation living with respect for one another, independently, and peacefully. 

1764 Treaty of Niagara/The Covenant Chain

This Wampum represents the agreement established at the 1764 Gathering of Peace at Niagara between First Nation leaders and a representative of the British Crown. In the centre of this belt there are two white beaded figures which represent the Indigenous people and the Crown entering a peaceful relationship. The figures holding hands represent a bond of peace, friendship, and respect between the two groups. The chain is the solidification of this relationship and the agreements established at the Gathering of Peace. 

1764 Wampum Treaty with 24 Nations

This Wampum is relevant to the Treaty of Niagara. This wampum represents the divide in agreement between Indigenous tribes on whether or not they should help the British in the event of a war with the Americans.

War of 1812 Belt/ Claus Wampum

This Wampum represents the bonds and relationship between the Indigenous people and the crown after the war of 1812. The white interlocking design represents interwoven bonds of love and friendship. 


Two Row Wampum Belt. Nativemedia, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons